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The Western alphabet of 26 letters and the calendar of 12 months and 365.25 days are only two simple examples of the cultural legacy which Rome has bequeathed Western civilization., it was already inhabited by various peoples of different cultures and languages.Most natives of the country lived in villages or small towns, supported themselves by agriculture or animal husbandry (Italia means “Calf Land”), and spoke an Italic dialect belonging to the Indo-European family of languages.Unlike Greek city-states, which excluded foreigners and subjected peoples from political participation, Rome from its beginning incorporated conquered peoples into its social and political system.Allies and subjects who adopted Roman ways were eventually granted Roman citizenship.Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.Join Britannica's Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work!They possessed a list of annual magistrates from the beginning of the republic onward (the consular ), which formed the chronological framework of their accounts.
In the course of centuries Rome grew from a small town on the Tiber River in central Italy into a vast empire that ultimately embraced England, all of continental Greeks, who excelled in intellectual and artistic endeavours, the Romans achieved greatness in their military, political, and social institutions.
Roman society, during the republic, was governed by a strong military ethos.
While this helps to explain the incessant warfare, it does not account for Rome’s success as an imperial power.
Gladiatorial combats and the military triumph (see below) were other customs adopted from the Etruscans.
Rome lay 12 miles inland from the sea on the Tiber River, the border between Latium and Etruria.